People who undertake such survey are known as land surveyor. Land Surveying Services is a vital part of the design and construction process. Land surveyor also map slopes and areas for pay volumes or quantities, map river bottoms for dredging, lay out photo control for aerial photography and photogrammetry, write legal descriptions that are used to describe pieces of property, map and layout corridors for tunnels, roads, airports, pipelines, cellular networks and railroads, and split up properties into new lots, such as subdivisions. Let us see the important equipment used in land survey.
The basic function of the land surveyor is measuring, mapping, and observing.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Global positioning system operates with help of satellites which sends data and links to the land surveyor who is the receiver. The receiver will transmit those data to the informations.
Traditional Total Station Surveying
The land surveyor measures by sending a beam of infrared light toward a prism, usually supported either by a tripod or a pole. The light reflects off the prism directly back to the total station. By measuring the time it takes for the light to return, the total station calculates the distance away that the prism is. All these information are collected in a data collector. The data collector also doubles as a field computer, enabling us to calculate coordinate geometry in the field and figure out the proper position in which to put our stakes.
Leveling & 3-D Surveying
After the information is collected they are used to level the elevation in the land to construct the road so that they are smooth without much of bumps in the road. There are many leveling and one of them is differential leveling. By the help of the station using the geometry and measuring the angles and distances, and by Global Positioning System the leveling can be made accurate.
The land surveying is usually done by assigning project works and called as project management. The land survey dates back to a very long time and even in those it is seen that people take land survey in groups known as project management.
Land surveyor uses high-tech laser-based, GPS-enabled, calibrated chronometer, and sometimes astronomically-capable device as part of their work. Map tables are rarely used anymore, and the alidade has all but disappeared. The last application for this venerable optical device was the US Forest Service which used a specific type of alidade - a transit used in conjunction with a map table - for locating fires. Today, aerial location is generally much faster and more accurate in locating fires.
Thus the land survey helps us in laying us good roads, skyscrapers, bridges and other important buildings for the nation. Thus the land survey plays another important role in the construction department.